SAN DIEGO–The National League East features reigning Cy Young winner Jacob deGrom, Nationals ace Max Scherzer and tough Phillies right-hander Aaron Nola.The NL Central is loaded with quality hitters like Christian Yelich, Kris Bryant and Paul Goldschmidt who rank among baseball’s best bets to change the game with one swing.The NL West may lack the perceived depth of the league’s other divisions, but winning won’t be any easier for the Giants than it might be elsewhere. Through the first three …
by Dr Henry RichterMy past few articles on “Facing Reality About Life on Other Planets” have dealt with the necessary conditions for the existence of life on a planet—any planet. With the almost fanatical drive of the scientific community to find and prove the existence of life elsewhere in the universe, it is important to ponder the requirements for habitability. We’ve looked at the location in a galaxy, the location in a stellar system, the type of star required, and the physical characteristics of an exoplanet such as mass, rotation rate, atmosphere, magnetic field, water, a partial rocky surface and so on. This final article will consider the composition of planet: what materials and chemical building blocks must be present to sustain life.CarbonWe talked about life being based on carbon chemistry. A readily accessible and usable supply of carbon must be available in the planet’s chemical composition. Carbon itself, with its four bonds, is a remarkable element having a flexible bonding capability, giving it hundreds of thousands of possible molecular structures. The only other close element is silicon which can form a few somewhat complex molecules, but only a few compounds—nowhere near as many as carbon. Star Trek fantasies aside, astrobiologists generally admit that silicon-based life is just not possible. Carbon is known to be the basis of the acids, bases, enzymes, proteins, alcohols, esters, ethers, amino acids, and much more. A large number and variety of these are involved in building and maintaining living cells. So a ready supply of carbon is necessary. Where can it come from?The earth has usable carbon available in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide gas, in carbonate rocks, as carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans and lakes, and secondarily in plant tissues and juices (converted from atmospheric carbon dioxide). Both plants and animals are involved in the earth’s carbon cycle. Plants convert carbon dioxide gas into a wide variety of carbon compounds. These plants are consumed by animals, used as fuel, and the metabolic product being carbon dioxide. It’s a remarkable process!Other ElementsMany other elements are required for life in addition to carbon. These probably can’t be ranked in order of importance since all are essential. The next that comes to mind is calcium. This is used in bones and structural frameworks, and is an important signaling molecule. Calcium is also important in eggshells and seashells. Nitrogen is another essential element. Nitrogen compounds are needed for plant growth, and are in proteins. Phosphorus plays an important role in cell structure, cell activity, and the genetic code molecules, DNA and RNA. A variety of other elements, even some rare earths, are involved in life’s structures and processes. All you have to do is look at the label of a bottle of mineral supplements in a health food store to find selenium, magnesium, copper, and several others. We even see non-minerals such as iodine and bromine. Could we exist if any of these were absent from the earth, or weren’t readily accessible? I don’t know, but it raises the question whether complex life could exist elsewhere if any of these—or some combination of these elements—were missing. That brings us to the consideration of probability: what is the chance that all the required factors would exist simultaneously on an alien world?Probability: Running the NumbersLet’s look at the big picture now – the really big picture: the universe. It is estimated that there 100 billion galaxies (1011), each with 100 billion stars. That results in 1022 stars. Say that only one in 10,000 is a dwarf main sequence G2 star which, as we saw, is the most stable star for a habitable zone. That leaves 1018 possible host stars. That’s a quintillion—still a lot of stars! Let’s say that only one of 10,000 of these stars has a planet in the habitable zone; that now gives us 1014 candidate planets (a hundred trillion). Let’s further grant a generous 10% chance that any of the required features would “happen” to be present in any one planet (I think a 1% chance would even be high). All of these features have to be present simultaneously for there to be any chance of complex life existing. The factors below are listed in the documentary The Privileged Planet, mentioned earlier.Located within the galaxy habitable zone 10%A stable star with constant energy output 10%A planet formed within the habitable zone around the star 10%A planet in a stable orbit maintaining a steady distance from the star 10%Protected by gas giant planets in the solar system 10%A rotation speed of about 24 hours 10%A planet with a suitable atmosphere: oxygen-rich, depth, circulation 10%A planet with the appropriate mass 10%A planet with abundant water 10%A reasonable ratio of water to land mass 10%A crust capable of plate tectonics 10%A magnetic field within the proper strength range 10%A moon of the proper size, distance, and orbit around the planet 10%A readily available source of abundant carbon compounds 10%Trace elements of the right type and quantity 10%One could go on and on, adding more factors, but these are a few of the most essential features to consider. So let’s multiply that out: 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 = 10-15. This probability times 1014 candidate planets leaves 10-1 planets, less than one! If I had used a 1% probability instead of 10% (more reasonable), that would have reduced the overall probability to 10-30, yielding 10-16 habitable planets out of the hundred trillion candidate planets. This implies that even one habitable planet in the whole universe has less than one quadrillionth a chance of being found! With a probability this small, changing the order of magnitude of our estimates for the number of stars is not going to make much difference.Beyond just the requirements for habitability, could we expect undirected evolution to bring about a second form of complex life anything like the beauty and complexity of life we find here on Spacecraft Earth? Could life even start by chance, before evolution’s natural selection comes into play? I maintain that it could not have happened once by accidental means here, much less than a second time elsewhere!So, to wrap up, the outlook is bad for avid hunters of populated planets. There aren’t likely to be any other habitable planets in the universe. The only reasonable conclusion, given the evidence we have considered, is that our earth was specially and wonderfully made to be inhabited.Dr Henry Richter, a contributing science writer to Creation-Evolution Headlines, was a key player at NASA/JPL in the early days of the American space program. With a PhD in Chemistry, Physics and Electrical Engineering from Caltech), Dr Richter brings a perspective about science with the wisdom of years of personal involvement. His book America’s Leap Into Space: My Time at JPL and the First Explorer Satellites (2015), chronicles the beginnings of the space program based on his own records and careful research into rare NASA documents, providing unequaled glimpses into events and personnel in the early days of rocketry that only an insider can give. His next book, Spacecraft Earth: A Guide for Passengers, is due out later in 2017. For more about Dr Richter, see his Author Profile.(Visited 448 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
(Visited 628 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 How deep should lunar dust get over billions of years? Opinions have vacillated between extremes, but a new study might open up the debate again.Before the first soft landing on the moon by Surveyor 1 in 1966, scientists were quite worried about lunar dust being too deep to land on. The NASA-JPL page about Surveyor 1 explains:Before humans could take their first steps on the moon, that mysterious and forbidding surface had to be reconnoitered by robots. When President John Kennedy set a goal of landing astronauts on the lunar surface in 1961, little was known of that world, beyond what could be gleaned from observations by telescopes.We knew it was rocky, bleak and heavily cratered — how might these conditions affect the landing of a spacecraft there? Was the surface sufficiently solid to support the 33,500-pound Apollo lunar lander? Or was it so deeply covered in dust from billions of years of meteorite impacts, as some theorized, that the lunar module would simply sink out of sight, dooming the astronauts? These and a hundred other questions about the surface composition dogged mission planners, so a robot would make the dangerous journey first – the lunar lander from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Surveyor 1, 1966Dr Henry Richter, the instrument manager for the Explorer, Ranger and Surveyor missions, recalls lunar dust was a “real concern” in those years (personal communication). Scientists were relieved when the Surveyors landed successfully without sinking out of sight; even so, the Surveyors and Apollo lunar modules were equipped with wide footpads just in case. The Apollo astronauts were rather surprised to find the dust layer very shallow, just a few inches deep. Often, they could scrape bedrock with their boots.Many creationists used this fact to argue for a young moon. If the moon were 4.5 billion years old, they said, it should have accumulated great depths of dust. The fact that it did not suggested to them that the moon was not as old as claimed. The amount of dust accumulation, however, was later found to be based on flawed estimates of incoming dust, and perhaps by the assumption that particles would softly settle onto the lunar surface rather than slam in at high speeds, where it might melt and harden. Vitriolic critics lambasted the argument, and so many creationists sheepishly backed away from it – although, as we see from JPL’s quote, it was not just creationists who assumed great volumes of dust should be there. Snelling and Rush at ICR said in 1993,Unfortunately, attempted counter-responses by creationists have so far failed because of spurious arguments or faulty calculations. Thus, until new evidence is forthcoming, creationists should not continue to use the dust on the moon as evidence against an old age for the moon and the solar system.Wishing to use only the strongest arguments for youth, apologists like those at CMI have urged caution, listing the lunar dust argument among those that creationists should not use. “Nevertheless, as we have indicated before,” CMI continues, keeping the door slightly open, “creationists as well as evolutionists need to be prepared to re-examine arguments as new and better data emerges.”New and Better Data Are HereWhen particles slam into the moon, they “garden” the surface (regolith), by overturning layers and re-depositing them on the surface. Impacting bodies vary over 12 orders of magnitude, from nanometer-sized particles to large asteroids. Impactor size follows a power law, with big impacts being more rare than small ones. The last major mathematical model of regolith mixing (impact gardening) was done by Gault et al in 1974. Now, a new model by Costello, Ghent and Lucey, published in Icarus, has identified a major oversight in Gault’s model. While appreciative of the pioneering work on mixing done back then, Costello points out that Gault’s model only considered mixing due to primary impacts. What happens when secondaries are taken into account? [Note: primaries are original impacts; secondaries are fallback material launched from a primary impact.] Secondaries make a big difference!Our most important update is the inclusion of secondary impacts. Our calculations show that secondaries are necessary to produce the reworking rate inferred from the depth distribution of surface-correlated material in Apollo cores …. Overturn calculations that only consider the impact of primaries fail to describe observed reworking rates at all depths and timescales. We conclude that secondary impacts dominate mixing in the top meter of lunar regolith.We have reported before in these pages several times about the “impact” of secondary craters on crater count dating (e.g., 22 May 2012, 19 Oct 2015, 12 Oct 2016). One impact on Mars could launch a million secondaries, and some secondaries can travel between bodies, such as between Jupiter’s moons. So serious was the failure to account for secondary impacts, it rendered all previous calculations of surface dates based on crater counts questionable. Is a similar situation about to happen with Costello’s paper on the question of lunar dust accumulation?While primary impactors arrive at high speeds (20 km/sec) enough to melt rock, secondary impactors would tend to be smaller and drift down to the surface on ballistic paths. The astronauts were very familiar with the behavior of dust as they walked around and drove around in the rovers. They could see it float back down after being kicked up by their boots. And as we have reported, electrostatic forces can propel fine dust for long distances (10 Jan 2017, 28 Feb 2018). Continuing for millions and billions of years, would these processes not predict heavy accumulations of fine dust?Costello’s new model, which takes secondaries into account, finds better agreement with Apollo rock samples.Overturn due only to primary impacts is much too infrequent and shallow to produce the thorough mixing implied by the depth distribution of 26Al in the Apollo cores. It takes a flux of primary impactors hundreds of millions of years to reach 3 cm depth just once with 50% probability. The homogeneous distribution of 26Al suggests many more than one overturn event has occurred in less than a million years. The flux of secondary impacts appears to be much more effective, thoroughly reworking the regolith at 2–3 cm in less than a million years: a rate consistent with inferences from 26Al in the Apollo cores.This statement does not mean that the surface is a million years old. What it does mean is that earlier models significantly overlooked the effects of secondary impacts.Building on the core statistical concept presented by Gault et al. (1974) we present a generalized model that describes the rate and probability a point at depth experiences overturn as a function of time. By using material parameters consistent with lunar regolith and lunar impact flux, we calculate the rate and probability of overturn on the Moon. Compared to the overturn rate driven by the modern flux of primaries, overturn due to secondaries is in much better agreement with the Morris (1978) reworking rate and the depth-distribution of 26Al measured in Apollo cores. This is especially true at short timescales and shallow depths. Further, overturn due to secondaries better describes the rate at which surface features such as splotches rework the regolith and the rate at which cold spots and rays are reworked into the background. We conclude from these comparisons that secondaries are the dominant driver of overturn in the top meter of lunar regolith.Figure 9(c) in the paper shows what the new model predicts geologists would find in a one-meter drill core after one billion years. Everything down to a meter should show some evidence of reworking. Everything shallower than 50 centimeters should have been thoroughly reworked, being overturned 100 times. Everything shallower than 10 centimeters should be homogeneous, having been reworked at least 10,000 times! Multiply these values by 4.5 to get closer to the actual prediction old-agers would expect. Does that match what the Apollo astronauts actually found when they scraped hard rock with their boots?Even Costello’s new model is not complete. The estimates could be lower limits. Here are just a few of the uncertainties that still remain in this latest model, 49 years after Apollo 11:Superficially, calculations of overturn driven by micrometeorites could be improved by using the dust flux from studies of LADEE and LDEF data (e.g. Meshishnek et al., 1993; Horányi et al., 2015; Szalay and Horányi, 2016). More fundamentally, future incarnations of our model should include cratering laws and energy-partitioning that are designed specifically to describe micro-impacts. Another fundamental issue remains unaddressed in this treatment of micrometeorite overturn: the effects of micro-secondaries…. Evidence of mixing does not discriminate between primaries, secondaries, slumping, jetting or astronaut footprints. The depth-distribution of surface correlated materials observed in Apollo cores and the rate at which cold spots and rays disappear are the result of a complicated system of mixers. Determining the relative influence of each mixing driver is important for future modeling of regolith evolution. Here we have treated only one kind of regolith mixing: vertical excavation form cratering events. Because the mixing rates we predict with a flux of secondary impacts included are reasonable, one could argue that the vertical mixing of regolith is dominantly driven by secondary distal ejecta that produce secondary craters. Inferences about lateral transport and horizontal mixing are currently beyond the scope of this model; however, by better constraining the treatment of secondaries, we may be able to investigate mixing in three dimensions and compare our results to lateral mixing models (e.g Huang et al., 2017) in the future. The treatment of secondaries used in this work could be improved to first order by a piece-wise power law or polynomial re-casting of flux as well as a treatment of the velocity and impact angle distributions of secondary projectiles. Recall that in this work we crudely assume that all secondaries impact the lunar surface at 0.5 km s−1, the minimum in the range of maximum spall velocities….These and other shortcomings in the new model will require more analysis, the Costello team admits. The old model’s reliance on primaries alone, however, “casts a pall of uncertainty on the fundamental assumption” Gault used to model the distribution of material on the surface.Expect big celebrations on July 19, 2019We share this paper not to do the analysis ourselves, but to show that the door is open to reconsider lunar dust accumulation as evidence for a young moon. On the verge of the 50th Anniversary of Apollo, the time has come to “re-examine arguments as new and better data” have been provided. Perhaps the lunar dust argument will emerge stronger, and will drop off the list of arguments creationists should not use.We see that CMI left the door open a bit by responding to an earlier CEH entry (21 Nov 2013) by adding a footnote to Snelling and Rush’s detailed 1993 refutation of the moon-dust argument (which included some consideration of secondaries, although not as up-to-date as Costello’s paper). CMI’s footnote said on 3 July 2014, New NASA data has turned up that is said to have been on ‘long-lost’ tapes*, and shows a dust influx rate some ten times that of previous measurements. At face value it seems to raise the possibility of at least a partial revival of the moon dust argument. Given the very careful and detailed creationist analyses which led to its abandonment in the first place, and the other factors that could potentially affect these results (see this summary by a friend and ally), any reassessment would need to be similarly thorough and careful.We agree and hope that this latest entry will stimulate a new thorough and careful analysis.
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Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university PLAY LIST 01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City MOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding View comments Read Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. The South Korean pair of Kam Alex Kang Chan and Kim Kyu-eun shared the same ice with North Korea’s Kim Ju Sik and Ryom Tae Ok for the first time. Before training earlier this week, Kam and Kim used the same locker room and put on skates early so they had spare time together.Then Kam, 22, proposed taking a selfie together. He called the 25-year-old Kim “hyeong,” a Korean term used to refer to an elder brother or friend.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“I said something like ‘Hey, Ju Sik hyeong, let’s take a photo together!’” Kam said after training Tuesday. “I posted that photo for fun … and to mark the Olympics.”The photo recalls a famous 2016 selfie taken by two North and South Korean gymnasts at the Rio Olympics—something that IOC President Thomas Bach described as a “great gesture.” Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH North Korea’s Ryom Tae Ok and Kim Ju Sik, center, practice next to South Korea’s Kim Kyu-eun, front right, and Alex Kam during a pairs figure skating training session prior to the 2018 Winter Olympics in Gangneung, South Korea, Monday, Feb. 5, 2018. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)GANGNEUNG, South Korea—A lot can be contained in a single selfie. The possibilities for peace between two entire nations, even.A selfie taken by smiling North and South Korean skaters and posted on Instagram illustrates yet another moment of reconciliation between the rivals, whose decades-long animosities could easily erupt again after the Pyeongchang Olympics.ADVERTISEMENT NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting That was certainly at play Monday when four North and South Korean hockey players who didn’t take part in the session took a selfie and laughed together. Also grabbing attention: earlier photos of birthday parties thrown for two North Korean players, and a dictionary aimed at overcoming a linguistic divide.“Hockey really does bring people together,” said the team’s Canadian coach, Sarah Murray. “On our team, they are just players. You know … there is no North Korean or South Korean. They are all wearing the same jersey. We are all on the same team.”On Thursday, in another unusual spectacle, North Korea’s national anthem was played and its flag was hoisted alongside an Olympic flag during a boisterous welcoming ceremony for athletes from the North. South Korea has strict security laws that normally ban the playing of the North’s anthem and the raising of its flag .A group of South Korean B-boys, or break dancers, twisted their bodies and flipped relentlessly after walking into the center of a group of North Korean athletes. A North Korean band played the Korean folk tune “Arirang.” North Korean athletes hummed to themselves before starting to dance. South Korean dancers joined them, triggering a barrage of camera flashes.“I feel so good,” North Korean figure skating coach Kim Hyon Son said after the ceremony. “I want to see both North and South Korean people being pleased.”The feel-good sparks will peak during the opening ceremony on Friday, when athletes of the Koreas will march together under a single “unification flag” to the tune of “Arirang” instead of their respective anthems. It will be the first such joint march since 2007.It’s unclear what other Olympic moments involving the two countries could make news, particularly because the hockey team isn’t expected to win a medal.“Quite strangely, no medal, no issue,” said Jung Moon-hyun, a sports science professor at Chungnam National University in South Korea. “Whether North Korea does some action that pours cold water on the Olympic (reconciliation mood) is something to think about.”But Jung said even one win by the team will be “very meaningful” news. On Feb. 14, the Korean team faces Japan, which colonized Korea for more than three decades before it split into North and South shortly after World War II.When the Games end, North and South Korean players will be separated, probably for good. Their governments ban ordinary citizens from exchanging phone calls, letters and emails, so they won’t communicate unless they encounter each other in international competitions. Aldridge, Spurs hand Suns their most one-sided loss ever Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises AFP official booed out of forum Similar amicable interactions are visible among the North and South Korean female hockey players, who have formed the rivals’ first joint Olympic team.The team of 12 North Koreans and 23 South Koreans was composed last month as the Koreas agreed upon a package of reconciliation steps following a year of heightened nuclear tensions that triggered fears of war on the Korean Peninsula.Many experts have raised worries about teamwork, and a survey showed a majority of South Korean opposed the joint team. Why? They thought it would deprive South Korean athletes of playing time.At the height of their Cold War rivalry, sports were often an alternate battlefield between the Koreas. North Korean medalists often ignored South Korean competitors who extended their hands for handshakes at podiums. North Korea also boycotted the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympics, both held in Seoul.Since the Cold War, though, the countries have sometimes used sports as a way to thaw relations.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES For now, though, things like congenial selfies will have to be enough. The South Korean media certainly liked the latest one showing Kam and Kim flashing smiles and making peace signs. It was reproduced all over the country.The Seoul-based Kookmin Ilbo newspaper even gave it a memorable moniker, a sign of hope after generations of Korean division: “The icon of new peace.”
Dan Cohen AUTHOR Multiple jurisdictions surrounding Joint Base Langley-Eustis will begin a joint land use study shortly to limit incompatible development outside the joint base in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia.James City County, York County, Newport News and Hampton are participating in the effort. The study has been approved by the Defense Department; the Office of Economic Adjustment is expected to allocate funding after it reviews the scope of work for the study, the Virginia Gazette reported this week.The possibility of new development interfering with operations at Fort Eustis assumed greater urgency when BASF Corp. applied to change its land use designation in James City County’s comprehensive plan for land it owns along the James River to mixed use. The corporation is considering selling the property to a potential waterfront developer. DOD said development on that land could come into conflict with operations at Fort Eustis.At the time, Virginia Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs John Harvey Jr. urged the county to postpone any rezoning until after a joint land use study had been completed, according to the story.
Email Facebook Duff McKagan Teases New Guns N’ Roses Album: “Oh, It’s Real” Following the wildly successful reunion for the Not In This Lifetime… Tour, GN’R’s bassist provides a promising update on new materialNate HertweckGRAMMYs Feb 25, 2019 – 5:26 pm At this point, Guns N’ Roses fans are used to two things: extended waits for new music and big surprises. The band’s 2008 album, Chinese Democracy, came after a notorious 15-year hiatus, and their blockbuster 2016 reunion for the Not In This Lifetime… Tour shocked and delighted fans on its way to becoming the fourth-biggest tour ever. Questions about new music were bound to arise, and now GN’R bassist Duff McKagan is fanning the flames of anticipation for a new album.”Oh, it’s real, but the fun part and the cool part about Guns N’ Roses is we don’t really talk about it, and what happens next just happens,” McKagan said on the Trunk Nation radio show. “It’s never been that band that there’s a direct schedule of how we do things. I’ve heard some magnificent stuff that Axl [Rose] has, really cool stuff he’s been working on. So I’m excited about the possibilities with that, of course. I don’t mean to get anybody rabid. Our day will happen when it happens, that’s for sure.” Twitter Duff McKagan Teases New Guns N’ Roses Album duff-mckagan-teases-new-guns-n-roses-album-oh-its-real Earlier this month, the band’s unmistakable guitarist Slash gave an equally hopeful yet murky glimpse into the new project. “Axl, Duff, myself and Richard [Fortus] have all talked about… there’s material and stuff going on already for a new record,” Slash said. “It’s just, with Guns N’ Roses, you don’t go, ‘Oh, there is a plan, and it’s gonna be like this,’ because that’s not how it works. So, basically, the only real answer to give is we’re hoping to put a new record out, and we’ll just see what happens when it happens.”Guns N’ Roses have been nominated for the Best Hard Rock Performance GRAMMY Award three times in their career. Last year the group released a sprawling 73-track box set to commemorate the anniversary of their 1987 debut, Appetite For Destruction. The collection, titled Locked N’ Loaded, earned its art directors a GRAMMY nomination for Best Boxed Or Special Limited Edition Package and gives fans plenty of music to enjoy from the GN’R archive while they eagerly await additional details on a new album.Guns N’ Roses’ Appetite For Destruction | For The RecordRead more News
Sembcorp Industries, one of Southeast Asia’s biggest utilities companies, plans to roughly triple its renewable energy portfolio over the next five years, targetting India and China for growth, a senior company official said.Industrial conglomerate Sembcorp, whose utilities arm forms one of its three main divisions, expects renewable energy to account for 20 percent of its total power capacity in five years, up from 13 percent at present, executive vice president Tan Cheng Guan told the Reuters Summit.”Over the last three years, we have grown renewables quite significantly,” Tan said. “We have been able to accelerate because the cost of renewables has been coming down quite quickly because of technology and scale.”Sembcorp, which plans to focus on wind and solar energy, where costs are expected to drop further by 2020, has total power capacity of about 8,800 megawatts (MW).India and China make up the bulk of its renewables capacity, with wind power assets in China of about 450 MW.In India, it jointly owns and operates wind and solar power assets with a total power capacity of 750 MW after buying a majority stake in Indian renewable energy firm Green Infra in February, this year.”India is under served at the moment and their (power) capacity is maybe one quarter of China’s, even with about the same population,” Tan said. “So, if India’s economy grows by 7 to 8 percent in the next decade, we see that India will grow the fastest.”A boom in clean energy projects is expected in India after it hiked its solar energy target to 100 gigawatts by 2022, a 33-fold rise from current levels.In China, Sembcorp is also jointly building a coal-fired power plant near coal mines in Chongqing.Tan said the plant’s newer and more efficient technology would help in China’s push to reduce its carbon footprint.Sembcorp is also looking towards Bangladesh and Myanmar where it is developing gas-fired power plants.He declined to comment on Sembcorp’s credit exposure to Jurong Aromatics Corp (JAC), which went into receivership last month due to debt problems.Sembcorp has a 20-year agreement with JAC for the supply of steam and other water and wastewater treatment services.