Kenya Commercial Bank Limited (KCB.tz) listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2012 presentation results for the half year.For more information about Kenya Commercial Bank Limited (KCB.tz) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Kenya Commercial Bank Limited (KCB.tz) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Kenya Commercial Bank Limited (KCB.tz) 2012 presentation results for the half year.Company ProfileKenya Commercial Bank Limited is a leading financial institution in Tanzania offering retail and corporate banking services as well as mortgages, treasury and Bancassurance services. Kenya Commercial Bank offers financial solutions ranging from current accounts, overdrafts and loans to fixed and short-term deposits, mortgage finance, trade finance and forex, and business investment accounts. The banking institution participates in investments in Treasury Bills and Bonds with the central banks. Wholly-owned subsidiaries in the banking group include Kenya Commercial Finance Company Limited, Savings & Loan Kenya Limited, Kenya Commercial Bank Nominees Limited, Kencom House Limited, KCB Tanzania Limited, KCB Sudan Limited, KCB Rwanda SA and KCB Uganda Limited. Kenya Commercial Bank Limited is listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange.
You won’t make a million with Bitcoin! But investing £250 a month in UK shares may do it 5 Stocks For Trying To Build Wealth After 50 Royston Wild has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. 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If you’re 50 or over, we believe these stocks could be a great fit for any well-diversified portfolio, and that you can consider building a position in all five right away. Click here to claim your free copy of this special investing report now! Image source: Getty Images Royston Wild | Saturday, 1st August, 2020 | More on: ^FTMC Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. 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He said that you don’t buy or sell businesses based on today’s headlines. You buy stocks based on an assumption that they will be in good shape several years from now. With Bitcoin continuing to hit regulatory hurdles I’m not sure the asset class will even still be around at the end of the 2020s.UK shares: better than Bitcoin?This is why I’d much rather buy UK shares than invest in Bitcoin. Share markets have been around for centuries and have a much stronger track record of making people rich. Sure, they’re not immune to extreme volatility themselves, as the 2020 stock market crash illustrates. But they remain a much clearer, more robust and less risky way for investors to put their money to work than Bitcoin.Studies show that with a sound investment strategy the modern long-term investor can make an average annual return of up to 10% on their money. Based on this calculation, someone aged 25 who invests £250 a month in UK shares could find themselves sitting on an enormous £1.1m by the time they retire.But you don’t have to start investing in early adulthood to get rich from UK shares. Even if you have no savings at 40 you can still make a whopping £493,000 to retire on at age 65 based on that 10% rate.So forget about gambling your money with Bitcoin: trying to get rich with shares is a much better idea. And there’s a wealth of cut-price quality stocks to choose from following the stock market crash. See all posts by Royston Wild
The offload is becoming more and more common in the game, with players able to get a pass away while being tackled to keep their team’s attacking move alive. So how do you stop players from offloading?One way is the double tackle. The first tackler goes low to ensure the ball-carrier is brought to the ground. The second tackler can go higher to wrap up the ball and prevent the attacker from passing to a team-mate.If the second tackler is quick to get to their feet, they can also look to steal the ball and launch a counter-attack of their own.Watch this video to see mini rugby players demonstrating this skill. Try walking it through with two team-mates first to ensure you get your body positions right and increase the speed as you get more comfortable with the technique. Then try it out in a game situation. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS In every issue of Rugby World magazine you will find step-by-step guides on how to perform various skills to help mini rugby players develop their overall game. Mini rugby coach Nigel Botherway also provides details of different training games minis can play, which are fun and help to improve skill levels.We have also produced videos showing mini players performing various skills so you can practise replicating what they do to learn the correct technique and improve your game. A video showing mini rugby players how to double tackle For the latest Rugby World subscription offers click here and find out all the ways you can download the digital issue here.
Shelter Island House / Stamberg AferiatSave this projectSaveShelter Island House / Stamberg Aferiat Year: Houses “COPY” CopyHouses•United States Site Area:1.3 AcreDesign Team:Peter Stamberg, Paul Aferiat, Keith Tsang, Joshua Homer, Ryan Harvey, Josh Lekwa, Anna Portoghese, Michael Bardin, Adam Greene, Jasmit RangrCountry:United StatesMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!Floor PlanThe Shelter Island Pavilion gave us an opportunity to bring our influences, inspirations, aspirations and years of architectural design to bear in one place with only ourselves and our budget to define the boundaries. We chose to draw on specific inspirations such as Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion, Le Corbusier’s Ronchamps, and Marcel Breuer’s Wassily Chair. Save this picture!© Paul WarcholSave this picture!© Paul WarcholThese works were groundbreaking and truly prescient; each was conceived in part as a prediction of the future of industrialized production and construction. Keeping the plan of the Barcelona Pavilion in mind, we designed a house that explores the reality of the industrially-produced materials and methods of our own time. Unlike the Barcelona Pavilion that used then-exotic materials, we chose to utilize more common materials but rendered them striking in usage, pigment choice and detailing.Save this picture!© Paul WarcholCubists looked beyond the mechanical view of how the eye sees and employed the brain’s ability to remember and anticipate, allowing one to take in a seemingly disjointed array of phenomena but still have the whole make sense. The increasing plasticity of lightweight building materials allows us some of the Cubists’ slight-of-hand to simultaneously evoke the immediacies of built form as well as architectural dream states – the hovering roof, translucencies between inside and outside, and walls that are not walls.Save this picture!© Paul WarcholAdvancing material technologies have expanded the available palette through increased color intensity, optical effects and applications. Sir Isaac Newton ovserved the different behavior of color created with pigment and color created with light. The Impressionists and Fauves experimented with Newtonian principles to create light effects with pigment. These experiments have redefined thoughts on how colors relate to one another. Guided by Newtonian color theory, the intense palette of the house allows richly-colored reflected light to pass through translucent walls, suffusing spaces with a delighting glow. Save this picture!DiagramSave this picture!DiagramIn addition to the rigorous studies of perspective and color theory, environmentally sustainable materials and methods played a large factor in generating the design. First and foremost is the size of the project. In a time where new homes strive to maximize square footage, we consciously kept the enclosed footprint to two small pavilions totaling 1100SF. The home is designed for all seasons with the use of the spaces and the areas conditioned are modulated based on seasonal weather. Its heaviest use is during the summer. Save this picture!© Paul WarcholLarge sliding doors allow indoor functions to flow into outdoor terraces and gardens during the summer when additional space is desired and indoor conditioned space is rarely needed. The opposite occurs in winter where living occurs in a much smaller conditioned footprint. The house is one of the first on Shelter Island to use geothermal heating and cooling. Even so, it is rarely used in the warm season as we incorporated many passive design elements into the architecture. Save this picture!© Paul WarcholSolid walls on the south and west side of the building block the intense summer sun while floor to ceiling translucent double polycarbonate walls allow north and east light into the space as well as providing a much higher R-value as compared to traditional glass. Large sliding doors and windows are carefully placed to take advantage of the east/west sea breeze to cool the interiors. Large roof overhangs provide needed shade for the pavilion interiors while providing sheltered space ideal for outdoor living.Project gallerySee allShow lessMuseum for Underwater Antiquities Competition Entry / Dimitris ThomopoulosUnbuilt ProjectIE Master in Architectural DesignArticles Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/341921/shelter-island-house-stamberg-aferiat Clipboard Structural Engineering: United States Photographs Year: Construction Manager: Architects: Stamberg Aferiat Area Area of this architecture project 2010 Save this picture!© Paul Warchol+ 32 Share Altieri Sebor Wieber deVries and Wallace Mechanical Engineering: photographs: Paul WarcholPhotographs: Paul Warchol CopyAbout this officeStamberg AferiatOfficeFollowProductSteel#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesHousesUnited StatesPublished on March 09, 2013Cite: “Shelter Island House / Stamberg Aferiat” 09 Mar 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
ArchDaily Projects Australia Photographs: Derek Swalwell Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Molecule Studio ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910252/triangle-house-molecule-studio Clipboard Architects: Molecule Studio Area Area of this architecture project Eckersley Garden Architecture Manufacturers: James Hardie Australia, James Hardie, MAXI Plywood, Signorino, New Age Veneers, Radial Timbers, Stainless steel ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/910252/triangle-house-molecule-studio Clipboard Triangle House / Molecule Studio Kersulting Photographs Triangle House / Molecule StudioSave this projectSaveTriangle House / Molecule Studio Landscape Architect: “COPY” “COPY” 2017 Provan Built Stylist:Beck SimonCity:ToorakCountry:AustraliaMore SpecsLess SpecsText description provided by the architects. The Triangle House is a new home in Toorak, designed for a young family of five. The clients’ brief requested a ‘beach house’ in an urban context with design qualities including natural light, robust materials and a strong connection to the landscape. The existing house was a dilapidated single storey Victorian cottage and former milk bar with no site-specific relationship to its prominent corner site. Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe site has many constraints which had a significant design and budget impact on the new built form: a compact 200sqm triangular boundary; a 100 year old 2.0m diameter underground brick drain along the adjacent ROW boundary; a flood overlay requiring the dwelling to be lifted 1-1.5m above natural ground level; high voltage overhead powerlines to the front street boundary; 3.0m of soft fill underneath; and large neighbouring eucalyptus trees.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe architectural form is conceived as an elevated sinuous element, a timber-clad boat sitting on a rocky breakwater. The corner prow of the upper floor projects into the open arena of the street, anchored by the dark recessive ground floor mass, which serves as the negative space between the upper floor and the landscape.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe interior is conceived as a container for family living – where shared spaces and areas to retreat are layered vertically. On the ground floor, the compact 75sqm footprint is offset with volume. A generous 3.0m high family zone, with its timber lined ceiling and large full height glazing, dissolves the boundary between the interior and the adjacent landscape.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellSave this picture!Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellBy contrast, the upper floor is configured as enclosed bedroom spaces for retreat with elongated windows to frame views of the neighbouring trees and urban rooftops. A black spiral staircase mediates the public ground floor and private upper floor zones.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe interior materiality draws inspiration from Australian geology and vegetation; the crimson of a eucalyptus before it sheds its bark, the deep green of Wattle leaves, dark pebbled rivers and natural bluestone. The palette layers tonal paints, laminates and terrazzo with vibrant painted colour highlights to children’s bedrooms and upholstery.Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe massing of the new house sits in complement to its neighbours, with adjacent setbacks maintained and a fine rhythm of cladding and fenestration mimicking the narrow cottages within the tight streetscape. The front building setback enables the landscape to mediate the zone between footpath and façade, while the gaps in the fence are large enough to enable a filtered dialogue with the activity on the street (and enable overland flooding to permeate).Save this picture!© Derek SwalwellThe Triangle House is a thoughtful architectural response to a challenging site, creating a unique and small footprint home for its growing family.Project gallerySee allShow lessPusat Pastoral Keuskupan Bandung / Vindate Interior & ArchitectureSelected ProjectsAW Residence / andramatinSelected Projects Share Molecule Studio – Richard Fleming & Anja de Spa Year: Houses Lead Architects: Save this picture!© Derek Swalwell+ 39Curated by Paula Pintos Share CopyHouses•Toorak, Australia Builder: CopyAbout this officeMolecule StudioOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassStone#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesToorakAustraliaPublished on January 29, 2019Cite: “Triangle House / Molecule Studio” 28 Jan 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Howard Lake | 12 March 2010 | News Bmycharity to close Online fundraising service Bmycharity is to close over the next three weeks. The company made the announcement in an email to its clients and on its blog.Founders Ben Brabyn and Matt Cooper explained that they had made the decision following the recent failure of a proposed deal that would have brought them investment to help support their expansion. They had been seeking additional resources for some time to help them to develop their system and expand their team.Since 2001 the site has helped 300 charities raise over £28 million. Ironically, the site, which moved to a commission-free service last year, still had a queue of charities waiting to register, and it had recruited its first major corporate sponsor in the shape of Interactive Investor. Donation volumes and average values had also surged, according to Brabyn.He apologised for the inconvenience that the closure would cause to the site’s users and clients. He wanted to make clear, however, that all charities’ income was protected in client accounts, so charities would not lose any of the income raised for them.Brabyn concluded on his blog post: “Without additional resources, we’ve done all we can to contribute to the development of the market for online fundraising in the UK, and now the time has come to seek other challenges”.www.bmycharity.com 63 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Bmycharity Digital AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Source: NAFB News Service Senators Again Strive to End Redundant Pesticide Permit Requirements Previous articleIndiana Flexes Political Muscle at StatehouseNext articleIndiana Soybean Alliance Seeks Nominations for National Checkoff Board Gary Truitt Facebook Twitter SHARE Home Indiana Agriculture News Senators Again Strive to End Redundant Pesticide Permit Requirements By Gary Truitt – Jan 30, 2013 Facebook Twitter SHARE Nebraska Senator Mike Johanns and Kansas Senator Pat Roberts have introduced legislation to eliminate a burdensome, costly and redundant Environmental Protection Agency permit requirement for applications of pesticides. Johanns says the agenda the Administration’s EPA is pushing amounts to more red tape, more roadblocks and more needless headaches. He notes the President has repeatedly promised to eliminate duplicative regulations – but says actions speak louder than words. That’s why he is acting with Roberts on an economically and environmentally responsible solution to this government-made problem. According to Roberts – the double layer of red tape isn’t just costly to the agriculture industry and consumers – but creates confusion and the potential for significant penalties. He says this bill eliminates a redundant permit requirement while still ensuring proper pesticide use through existing law.In January 2009 – the Sixth Court of Appeals issued an opinion in that requires pesticide applications to be permitted under the Clean Water Act. This National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit is added to the label requirements and restrictions already placed on the use of a pesticide under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. With their bill – Roberts and Johanns seek to ensure Clean Water Act permits aren’t needed for the applications of pesticides and amends FIFRA by stating no permit shall be required for the use of a pesticide that is registered under the act. Roberts introduced the same legislation in the last Congress. It was blocked from floor consideration. The House and Senate Agriculture Committees passed similar legislation with strong bipartisan support in the 112th Congress.Jerry Moran of Kansas, Roy Blunt of Missouri, John Barrasso and Michael Enzi of Wyoming, John Thune of South Dakota, Chuck Grassley of Iowa, David Vitter of Louisiana, James Inhofe of Oklahoma and John Boozman of Arkansas are co-sponsoring the legislation.
Reporters Without Borders condemns the distribution ban which the Syrian authorities have imposed on the privately-owned Lebanese daily Al-Diyar since 22 April and the threats that have been made against its editor, Charles Ayoub, a Lebanese politician with a pro-Syrian stance.The ban follows the publication in the newspaper of a series of columns by Ayoub criticising another politician with a pro-Syrian position, Michel Aoun, accusing him of corruption. The two men are rival candidates in the June parliamentary elections for the Mount Lebanon district.“Political tension is mounting in Lebanon in the run-up to the election,” Reporters Without Borders said. “The Syrian ban on Al-Diyar is further evidence of this. Nonetheless, the political in-fighting should spare the media and allow room for a wide range of views to be expressed.”Al-Diyar has been having problems ever since Ayoub announced that he would be a rival pro-Syrian candidate to Aoun in the election. Several issues were censored in Syria in recent months. The activities of its journalists have been monitored. And Ayoub was told he would be killed if he did not stop publishing his controversial columns.The Syrian distribution ban, introduced on 22 April until further notice, has reinforced the impression that the pro-Syrian camp has closed ranks against Ayoub’s candidacy in the elections.Ayoub told Reporters Without Borders: “I refuse to change the content of my newspaper despite the warnings I have received. I will continue to express my opinions about the elections and the candidates, and about corruption. For example, I proposed to Michel Aoun that we both release our bank account details for the sake of more transparency. I am surprised by this ban, but it is the censors who decide.” Organisation November 11, 2020 Find out more Follow the news on Lebanon LebanonMiddle East – North Africa January 14, 2021 Find out more RSF_en to go further Help by sharing this information Lebanon : Violence against reporters becoming more frequent in Lebanon News News News News February 4, 2021 Find out more Lebanese journalist found shot dead in car Receive email alerts Ban on the privately-owned Lebanese daily Al-Diyar since 22 April in Syria April 24, 2009 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Newspaper under pressure because of political tension and rivalry Forum on Information and Democracy 250 recommendations on how to stop “infodemics” LebanonMiddle East – North Africa
Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Subscribe STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website 93 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Business News More Cool Stuff PCHF chair Bob Harrison receives the annual J. Donald Thomas AwardThe Pasadena Child Health Foundation (PCHF) was awarded the J. Donald Thomas Award at this year’s virtual Young & Healthy Gala, acknowledging real-life support that has changed the lives of countless needy children in the Pasadena area.“This award is in recognition for all the support they have given us through the years; they have been such a stable friend to us,” said Young & Healthy Executive Director Mary Donnelly-Crocker, who presented the award to PCHF chair Bob Harrison.“Their priority to health and wellness has been a perfect match for us,” Donnelly-Crocker said.Pasadena-based Young & Healthy is a network of volunteers and physicians who donate time and services so children in low-income areas can receive free medical, dental, and mental health care, as well as help in navigating insurance options.Since 1992, the Pasadena Child Health Foundation has provided more than $1.9 million in grants to Young & Healthy, making them an indispensable ally in the quest for a healthier community.Numerous other organizations have benefitted from PCHF. Since 1951, the charitable foundation has supported local groups that work to reduce health disparities for children living in the PUSD.In 2016, PCHF decided to maximize its financial efforts and streamline its administrative arm by becoming an official fund of the Pasadena Community Foundation. It bears the distinction of being the largest single gift in PCF history: $6 million.Today, the PCHF Fund has grown to $7,591,667 and its grant program continues to affect community change. Since its alignment under the PCF umbrella, PCHF has deployed $750,000 with 43 total grants to 15 different organizations — consistently supporting outstanding programs, such as Young & Healthy, year after year.This year, responding to the pandemic, PCHF expanded the number of annual grantees from 10 to 14, and worked with the organizations as they pivoted their programs to comply with safety protocols while continuing to be of active service in the community. Top of the News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Pulse PollVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week Community News Make a comment Non-Profits News Pasadena Child Health Foundation Awarded J. Donald Thomas Award at Young & Healthy Virtual Gala STAFF REPORT Published on Wednesday, October 14, 2020 | 3:10 pm CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Herbeauty6 Trends To Look Like A Bombshell And 6 To Forget AboutHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty12 Female Fashion Trends That Guys Can’t StandHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThe Most Heartwarming Moments Between Father And DaughterHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyEase Up! Snake Massages Are Real And Do Wonders!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWhat Is It That Actually Makes French Women So Admirable?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyIs It Bad To Give Your Boyfriend An Ultimatum?HerbeautyHerbeauty EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Community News
Death Penalty Sentencing in India’s Trial Courts: Confusion in the Apex Court Wreaks Havoc in Courts Below
News UpdatesDeath Penalty Sentencing in India’s Trial Courts: Confusion in the Apex Court Wreaks Havoc in Courts Below LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK13 May 2020 11:27 PMShare This – xProject 39A at National Law University, Delhi has released a study analysing trial court death penalty judgments from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Delhi during the period 2000-2015Project 39A has released a report titled DeathPenalty Sentencing in Trial Courts: Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra(2000-2015) containing findings from a study of all capital cases decided by trial courts of Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra between 2000 and 2015. Analysing 215 judgments (43 from Delhi, 82 from Madhya Pradesh, and 90 from Maharashtra), the report exposes the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginProject 39A has released a report titled DeathPenalty Sentencing in Trial Courts: Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra(2000-2015) containing findings from a study of all capital cases decided by trial courts of Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra between 2000 and 2015. Analysing 215 judgments (43 from Delhi, 82 from Madhya Pradesh, and 90 from Maharashtra), the report exposes the hollowness of sentencing hearings that are conducted. Combining empirical analysis and doctrinal critique, substantial parts of the report are also dedicated to demonstrating the normative and procedural gaps in death penalty sentencing framework that have been the legacy of the Bachan Singh judgment and the numerous inconsistencies in Supreme Court judgments in the 40 years thereafter. Contrary to the Constitution Bench decision in Bachan Singh (1980) which emphasised the relevance of mitigating factors in capital sentencing, trial courts heavily relied only on aggravating circumstances of the crime to decide the outcome. In 51% of the 215 trial court judgments, mitigating circumstances were not considered. Further, in complete defiance of the spirit of individualised justice envisaged in s.235(2) CrPC, 44% cases involved sentencing on the same day as conviction. In addition, the trials courts did not consider the default punishment of life imprisonment in 73% cases while deciding between life imprisonment and the death sentence. It would, however, be incorrect to attribute complete blame for a broken state of capital sentencing in trial courts exclusively to these courts themselves. The report also comments on the challenge in collating trial court judgments and records. Observing the lack of effective implementation of digitisation strategies, the report states that a large proportion of judgments had to be physically collected from records rooms across different High Court benches after due authorisation. Same day sentencing Section 235(2) of the CrPC provides for a bifurcated trial, where the conviction and sentencing are meant to be separate proceedings. In asking for and imposing the death sentence, Bachan Singh provides the framework for conducting sentencing hearings. However, the report notes that those requirements are barely ever met and a very significant indicator of that breakdown is the practice of same day sentencing. The abysmal absence of consideration of sentencing factors discussed below is worsened by the practice of same day sentencing. Even when sentencing hearings are not conducted on the same day, it was observed that barely enough time is given to prepare for meaningful sentencing hearings. The report finds that in 44% of the cases analysed across the three states, sentencing hearings took place on the same day as conviction. The crisis was most acute in Madhya Pradesh where same-day sentencing was observed in 76.9% of the cases. Maharashtra had sentencing on the same day in 34.4% of the cases, but 57% of the cases had sentencing on the same day or with just a 24-hour gap. Delhi fared better relatively with 53.4% of sentencing hearings taking place at least one week after the conviction. Non-consideration of mitigating factors The report documents significant concerns about the quality of sentencing hearings in the trial courts. The requirements of the law as laid down by a 5-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Bachan Singh and its actual practice in the trial court seem to be at complete variance. The confusion and severe lack of clarity of the legal position as expressed through various Supreme Court judgments over the last 40 years seem to have had a devastating impact on sentencing hearings in the trial courts. Trial courts across the three states used a crime-centric approach to impose the death penalty, and dismissed mitigating circumstances without any meaningful consideration. Resultantly only aggravating factors were used to impose the death penalty, most of which centrered around brutality of the crime. For instance, in one of the cases from Madhya Pradesh, the trial court observed: “Can any mitigating circumstance be a reason for such a beastly act? Can such a person gain mercy and sympathy from society? Can such a person have repentance for his deeds and reform for the good? Should the court allow such a person to live a grand life after serving the punishment?” Although Bachan Singh required sentencing courts to give a ‘liberal and expansive’ interpretation to mitigating factors, trial courts across the three states imposed the death penalty without considering, and in some cases, even mentioning any mitigating circumstances. The Report draws a distinction between consideration and mention of mitigating factors, using the latter for those cases where courts did not mention even a single mitigating factor while imposing the death penalty, let alone considering and dismissing on the basis of brutality of the crime. Collective Conscience While creating a sentencing framework for courts deciding between life imprisonment and the death penalty, Bachan Singh had placed no importance on the role of public opinion in deciding the outcome. Three years later, a 3-judge bench in Machhi Singh v. State of Punjab (1983) made public opinion relevant to capital sentencing by stating that the death penalty might be deserved in cases where the conscience of the society is so shocked as to warrant the imposition of the death penalty. Subsequently, satisfying the collective conscience and society’s cry for justice have been used frequently by the Supreme Court to impose the death penalty. Despite frequent usage, this approach has been critiqued by the Supreme Court itself in Santosh Kumar Satishbhushan Bariyar v. State of Maharashtra, for want of clarity around the meaning of ‘public conscience’ and the counter-majoritarian role of courts. The Report finds that trial courts across Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra have frequently invoked collective conscience, to the complete exclusion of mitigating factors. 31 cases in Delhi, 35 in Madhya Pradesh and 46 in Maharashtra used this as a relevant factor in deciding appropriate punishment. Of these total 112 cases, in 63 cases the courts considered absolutely no mitigating factors. Life Imprisonment As per the legislative mandate under s.354(3) CrPC, life imprisonment is the default punishment while death sentence can only be imposed if ‘special reasons’ exist. In line with this directive, Bachan Singh laid down a sentencing framework that requires courts to weigh aggravating and mitigating circumstances of both the crime and the accused and ensure that the option of life imprisonment is unquestionably foreclosed. Far from complying with this high standard to rule out the option of life imprisonment, trials courts across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi barely even considered the question of life imprisonment. In 35 cases (of 43) from Delhi, 60 cases (of 82) from Madhya Pradesh and 63 cases (of 90) from Maharashtra, courts went on to impose death sentences without discussing the alternative of life imprisonment. Even in these small numbers of cases across the three states where life imprisonment was discussed, it was dismissed on the basis of brutality of the crime in all (100%) cases. These numbers point to a complete breakdown of the sentencing framework developed in Bachan Singh. Reformation Reformation has been identified as a crucial mitigating factor in Bachan Singh where the Supreme Court went a step ahead to impose a burden on the prosecution to show that the accused is beyond the probability of reformation. However, findings from trial court judgments across the three states show that the probability of reformation is hardly ever considered and, even when it is, it is incorrectly tied to the brutality of the crime. In Maharashtra, out of a total of 90 cases, in 52 cases the trial courts sentenced the accused persons to death without considering the probability of reformation. Among 82 trial court judgments in Madhya Pradesh, only 14 discussed reformation, and 10 out of 43 did so among the judgments from Delhi. In 14 cases from Madhya Pradesh where probability of reformation was considered during sentencing, it was dismissed on the basis of crime in 9 cases. Similarly, in Delhi, in 4 of the 10 cases where it was considered, the circumstances of the crime resulted in its dismissal. 38 of the 90 cases from Maharashtra that considered the probability of reformation while sentencing, in 27 cases it was dismissed on the basis of brutality. Crime Profile Comparing the data in this Report from 2000-2015 with Project 39A’s Annual Death Penalty Statistics for 2016-19 shows interesting patterns about increased imposition of the death penalty for murders invovling sexual violence. For the period 2000-15, the Report finds that 49% of the death sentencess for murder simpliciter, while 28% had the death penalty imposed for murder involving sexual ofences. In Madhya Pradesh, however, sexual violence comprised a higher proportion of 36% of the total death sentences, as compared to 25% in Maharashtra and 23% in Delhi. However, Project 39A’s data since 2016 reveals that the proportion of death sentences imposed for sexual violence have risen significantly. Between 2016- 2019, out of a total number of 44 death sentences imposed in Madhya Pradesh, 34 (77.2%) involved sexual offences and in Maharashtra, this was true for 17 out of 34 (50%) sentences.The full report can be read here. Next Story